Difference between revisions of "Profile Guide Chapter 7"

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== Step 7.4 Question ==
== Step 7.4 Question ==
=== Overview ===
=== Overview ===

Revision as of 09:21, 27 May 2009

Step 7 lists three Optional Services for your library. Each one of these services will incur an additional fee (please consult with your Backstage Library Works Sales representative for details).

Step 7.1 Question

Authority Remaster

Some libraries already have a locally established MARS 2.0 authority file that they add to and modify. Many times this file rerpresents a larger group of bibliographic records than the records being sent for MARS 2.0 Authority Control. The library can choose to have this authority file remastered.

To remaster your existing authority file, MARS 2.0 will match the file against the latest national database files using the MARS 2.0 Remaster Service and return the updated MARC authority records to the library. In this case the local authority records are not used to override standard heading practice, but rather as a means of selecting and forwarding national authority records in the library. This will bring your entire authority database up to current national standards.

Parts of a Remaster

There are four parts during the MARS 2.0 Remaster Service:
  1. File Segmentation
  2. National Database Matching
  3. Control Number Location
  4. Distribution

File Segmentation


For best results the authority files submitted to Backstage should be separated by: Name, Subject, Series and Title. The library should follow the same file separation procedures as they do when loading authorities. For example, if a library maintains two authority files (Names, Subjects) then Backstage will return two updated authority files to sync with the library’s loading procedures.

National Database Matching


Libraries have the option of choosing which national database to search for their authority matching. The record searching is performed based on the control number within the library’s authority records. If a control number is not present, then the heading is searched as a string. Sometimes these are simply old heading that are no longer in the national database or they have missing or malformed control fields. Records that cannot be found via string match are retained in the client brief file for later searching as part of Notification Services (see Step 6 of the Planning Guide).

LC Control Number Location


The file of client authorities is searched against national master files based on control number (usually the 001 field, unless otherwise specified—some libraries require the 010 $a). Again, any authority records which do not find a match on the control number will have their headings searched in a string match.



In addition to distributing their updated authorities, libraries have the choice of whether they want their associated Brief authorities (unmatched headings) as well as an Unmatched Headings Report. Both of these can useful in helping libraries determine what actions they would like to take with their unmatched authority records.

Step 7.2 Question



MARS 2.0 Manual Review provides visual examination of authority controlled headings in your bibliographic records. MARS 2.0 Manual Review is performed by experienced MARS 2.0 staff librarians and library technicians, and results in a catalog of records with fewer errors and inconsistencies than machine processing alone can provide.

MARS 2.0 Manual Review editors examine electronic files of headings in your database, including the following fields:
     100, 110, 111, 130
     400, 410, 411, 440, 490
     600, 610, 611, 630, 650, 651, 655
     700, 710, 711, 730
     800, 810, 811, 830

These headings, found in reports R06 & R07 (see Step 5 of the Planning Guide), are reviewed for errors and then matched against the Library of Congress authority databases to determine if the heading can be matched. Manual Review consists of a careful scan of all headings in these reports coupled with a review of the bibliographic record where these headings reside to determine if the heading can be matched. Additionally, upon request, other reports may be considered as candidates for Manual Review.

Review Choices

The majority of the headings eligible for review are found in R06—Partially Matched Headings and R07—Unmatched Primary Headings reports (see Step 5 of the Planning Guide). Each library’s partially matched and unmatched headings will be divided into categories and reported to you. You can choose which categories you want reviewed and you can pick unmatched, partially matched or both types of headings for review. If you choose this service a report will be delivered before and after the review so you can follow the progress of your headings and evaluate the value of our servce.

The example of Reports R06 and R07 (found in Step 5 of your Summary Report) will give you an idea of which categories are going to be populated with unmatched and partially matched headings. A quick review of your summary report should give you an idea of what areas need to be looked at. Simply contact your MARS 2.0 Project Manager and indicate what additional categories you would like us to review.

In order to calculate the cost of MARS 2.0 Manual Review, we will run a sample of 300 records through our services. The price is usually between $0.15 to $0.45 per heading reviewed and will be determined based on how the sample fared during manual review.

Partial Matches and Free-Floating Subdivisions

Typically there will be a proportionately high number of partially matched headings. Usually about 75% of the total number of headings reported for manual review will be found in the partially matched headings report with most residing in the topical (650) and geographical (651) areas. The reason these areas are high in partial matches is because of the high use of the free-floating subdivisions for topical and geographical subject headings.

The MARS 2.0 software only considers a heading to be a full match if all subdivisions are established in a continuous string in the Library of Congress authority file. If some of those elements are not established or are established separately as free-floating subdivisions (18X) then the heading is considered a partial match. A partially matched heading could be a legitimate authority heading, but because some of its subdivisions are free-floating the MARS 2.0 software will consider it a parital match and add it to Report R06.

Elements Reviewed

The MARS 2.0 Manual Review editors look for and correct errors in:
  • Spacing, punctuation, capitalization, and spelling
  • Consistency in form of names
  • Abbreviations
  • Initial articles
  • Period subdivision dates
  • Missing, invalid, or incorrect usage of MARC21 subfield codes
  • Series headings (excluding volume/sequential designations)
  • Conference names
  • Mistagged names
  • Main heading/subdivision combinations in LC subject headings
  • Geographic, form, and language subheadings in MeSH headings


Although most corrections are accomplished during MARS 2.0 Authority Control machine processing, unique and unusual errors often cannot be corrected solely with fully automated processing. Some types of errors require manual correction to bring headings into conformity with current standards and practices.

Special Heading Updates

Some special types of heading updates supported during Manual Review include:
  • Direct geographic subdivisions in LC headings
  • Jurisdictional splits and mergers
  • Subdivision simplification
  • Location of Mrs. in name headings
  • Presence of maiden name in headings
  • City “Flip” (conversions)
  • Pre-AACR2 usage of subfields $b in 650 Topical Subject Headings

Types of Headings Reviewed

The types of headings that are examined during Manual Review are based on the options selected in Step 3. In Step 3.8, for example, one of the options for processing LC Children’s headings is “Match against LC only / Retain unmatched headings.” If a library selects this option, many of their LC Children’s headings will be converted to LC Adult headings during automated MARS 2.0 Authority Control. Those that are not converted would be examined during Manual Review. The Manual Review editors would convert as many Children’s headings to Adult, as long as:
  1. The concept expressed by the heading is clear
  2. An equivalent LC Adult heading has been established

Alternately, if a library chose the Do not process option for their LC Children’s headings, they would not be submitted for Manual Review.

Manual Review Service Request

Indicate whether you want MARS 2.0 Manual Review. The MARS 2.0 staff recommends Manual Review if your catalog has never been under authority control or contains a large number of older or retrospective conversion records.

Choose the headings you would like reviewed and whether the MARS 2.0 reviewers should check the Paritally Matched Headings report and/or the Unmatched Report. If you have special manual review requirements that are not covered in the standard review please attach a copy of your request to Step 7.

After Manual Review

Following Manual Review, the corrected headings are run through the automated MARS 2.0 Authority Control a second time. A second statistical report is created that is the same as the first. It will include a summary report followed by reports of all the heeadings still unmatched. This second phase of authority control results in:
  • Additional heading updates due to corrections made during Manual Review
  • An increase in the number of matched headings
  • Distribution of additional authority records to the library

Additional Corrections

Manual Review editors often correct an additional 10% of a library’s bibliographic record headings (percentage varies widely among catalogs). Manual Review greatly improves a catalog with older records cataloged over a number of decades, while fewer corrections are made in catalogs of recent records consistently cataloged in accordance with current cataloging standards and practices.

Interim Return of Records

Local considerations, particularly in larger libraries, may make return of interim corrections essential. An initial set of all bibliographic authority records can be distributed to the library following the first phase of authority control (pre-Manual Review).

After Manual Review and the second phase of automated authority control have been completed, MARS 2.0 provides the library with a second set of files. These files contain the records with the headings corrected during Manual Review, plus the additional authority records matched due to headings that have changed during Manual Review.

Step 7.3 Question


MARS 2.0 TOC Enrichment

Backstage Library Works has partnered with Blackwell’s Book Services to provide an optional Enriched Content service to your bibliographic records. This service provides TOC (Table of Contents) notes at the chapter level, Summaries from dust jackets and Author affiliation information.

The advantage of contracting for TOC services through Backstage Library Works is you don’t have to send data to two places or coordinate multiple data deliveries. You send your bibliographic records to Backstage Library Works for MARS 2.0 processing and we take it from there. We have your bibs enriched at Blackwell’s then run your records through the MARS 2.0 process for bibliographic validatin and authority control processing.

Note: Please contact your sales representative for pricing information on Blackwell’s TOC solution. A separate profile will be sent to you to define the TOC service.

Blackwell TOC Solution

Blackwell Book Service, Table of Contents Enrichment Services, contains imprints dating back to 1991. Contents of 40,000 titles are added each year. Titles purchased by academic, special and public libraries are included in their database. In addition to Table of Contents, Title Summaries from dust jackets and Author Affiliation Information can be added to your records for the same price.

You have several options when choosing Blackwell as your TOC provider. All are incorporated into one convenient price. Please see your sales representative for pricing on a Blackwell TOC solution.

TOC Format Options

Three enrichment formats are available for Table of Contents data:
  1. Basic USMARC 505 field—TOC added to $a of the 505 field in conformity with USMARC Standards
  2. Enhanced UMMARC 505 field—Blackwell provides an enhanced 505 field
  3. Locally defined field—TOC can be added to a local 9XX field

Descriptive Summaries & Author Affiliations

Descriptive summaries and Author affiliation information are gathered from the book dust jackets to further enrich your data:
  • Descriptive Summaries—Can be added to the 520 fields
  • Author Affiliations—Can be added to the 9XX fields

Step 7.4 Question



Backstage Library Works offers a third ongoing service product that we call Bibliographic Record Update Service. This service updates your bibliographic records during our Notification Service.

The process of importing and updating the library's authority records is straightforward. Control numbers are matched and the newly imported record overlays the old authority record. However, for some ILS systems the updating of hte authority heading is done by a string match on the 1XX or the 4XX of the authority record. If the 1XX or the 4XX are not the same as the old bibliographic authority heading, some ILS systems will not automatically match the new authority heading with the authorized heading in the bibliographic record. Typically, this is done through reports but the effort to reconcile or to populate the authorized heading in the bibliographic record can be partially manual and be time-consuming depending on the ILS and the library.

Because of the acceleration of Library of Congress updates to the name and subject files, we have noticed an increase in the amount of updates coming to Backstage each week. As a result, we have developed a service that updates the library's bibliographic record at the same time we update the authority heading. We call this service Bibliographic Record Update Service.

With this service, Backstage Library Works maintains your bibliographic records along with your authority records. When Notification Services run on your database, our Bibliographic Record Update Service will also run. Backstage will update or reconcile your bibliographic database at the same time as we update your authority file. We will deliver to you updated bibliographic records along with your updated and new authority files.

Getting Started

To start this process, the library will send Backstage Library Works a MARC export of their entire bibliographic database. Each bibliographic record must contain a unique control number when exported. This is for matching purposes when the updated record is returned to the library from Backstage Library Works.

The next time Notification or Current Cataloging Services are run for the library, Backstage will update the library's bibliographic record with changes made to the authority headings.

Record Output

The library has two options for output of updated bibliographic records. The first option is to return the updated MARC records in MARC format for overlay into their ILS system. The second option is to receive a MARC Transaction Record from Backstage Library Works.

      Example MARC Transaction Record
      Leader: 00187naa a22000061z 4500
      001   000118229
      710 2 $aR. Deputazione di storia patria per le Marche.$9MAT
      710 2 $aRegia Deputazione di storia patria per le Marche.$9ADD

Note: ILS input of a MARC transaction record may not be standard to your ILS system. Check with your vendor to make sure a a transation record can be imported and overlaid on your system.


Library updates to their bibliographic database must be sent to Backstage Library Works before the Bibliographic Update Service is processed. About a week before the process is scheduled to run, the library will need to send Backstage its changed bibliographic records.

If this routine maintenance is not done and the library overlays the updated bibliographic record from Backstage, the internal library updates that took place between the time the original bibs were sent and the time our process was run will be lost. If the library's ILS system has the ability to merge incoming bibliographic records they may not need to send Backstage their internal bibliographic updates.

Bib Update Service Flow-Chart