Step 3.6: Subdivision Updates
The use of $v for form subdivisions (periodical, bibliography, etc.) was authorized in the MARC Bibliographic Format in 1995. Introduced first by NLM in MeSH headings, LC began distributing both bibliographic and authority records containing $v in February 1999.
LC Standard Form
An increasing number of authority records include subdivisions coded as subfield $v. When a heading in a bibliographic record matches an authority record heading, MARS 2.0 modifies the subfield codes to conform to those in the authority record as part of the matching process:
original form: 650 0 $a English literature $x History and criticism $x Periodicals. new form: 650 0 $a English literature $x History and criticism $v Periodicals.
Many libraries have begun coding form subdivisions as $v in their new catalog records. MARS 2.0 can preserve your $v codes in subject headings regardless of the existence of an LC authority record for the heading:
original heading: 650 0 $a Stocks $x Prices $v Databases. authority record sh 87003018: 650 0 $a Stocks $x Prices $x Databases.
If you preserve existing $v, the original $v will be retained even though the LC authority record codes databases as $x. The heading on the bibliographic record would be your original heading:
650 0 $a Stocks $x Prices $v Databases.
You can also elect to have all form subdivisions coded as $v:
original heading: 650 0 $a Stocks $x Prices $x Databases. authority record sh 87003018: 650 0 $a Stocks $x Prices $x Databases. In this example, you have chosen update $x subdivisions to $v regardless: 650 0 $a Stocks $x Prices $v Databases.
MARS 2.0 would convert your bibliographic heading to the new $v form whether or not an authority record contained that form. MARS 2.0 programs only modify a subfield code if the subdivision meets a number of specific conditions, set by LC and MARC 21. To be eligible for updating to $v, the subdivision must be:
- Part of a subject (6XX) heading
- The last subfield, or last pair of subfields, in a heading
- Eligible subfields can be followed by geographic $z
- Eligible subfields can be followed by $x containing a language
Other exceptions are also supported by the MARS 2.0 $v system and are found in our programming set of rules. The MARS 2.0 staff has made many additional changes to other MARS 2.0 tables so that obsolete subdivisions will be updated to the correct $v form. If you have a question about a particular $v conversion, please contact your MARS 2.0 project manager.
MARS 2.0 programs apply an extensive table of over a thousand form subdivisions consisting of both single and multiple subdivisions to $v processing. This table was developed based on LC and MARC 21 form subdivision documents, plus analysis of library headings by the MARS 2.0 Authority Control team. Subdivisions that can be correctly coded by either a $x or $v are always converted to a $v if this option is selected.
A Subfield Code Changed from $x to $v report is generated for all headings containing ambiguous headings that have been flipped to $v (see Step 5.2, R39).
Two subdivisions that appear at the end of a heading are not converted to $v unless the pair has been included as an acceptable combination in the form subdivision table.
In this example, both gazetteers and bibliography can be form subdivisions:
original heading: 651 0 $a France $x Gazetteers $x Bibliography.
The combination of these two $x subdivisions, however, is not an authorized form subdivision, so only the final subdivision would be recoded as $v:
651 0 $a France $x Gazetteers $v Bibliography.
Please note that even if you choose not to Update $x subdivisions to $v, there is still a chance that an authority match against LC will make that update for your heading. Consider the following example:
original heading: 650 0 $a English language $x Dictionaries.
In this case, your original heading has $x and you have indicated in the profile to not update $x to $v (by leaving the option unchecked). However, there exists this LCSH authority:
LC subject authority: 001 sh 85043513 150 $a English language $v Dictionaries
Due to our NACO normalization routines, both of these headings would normalize to this:
ENGLISH LANGUAGE $ DICTIONARIES
Now both headings match and your original heading is updated to this:
updated heading: 650 0 $a English language $v Dictionaries.
When you leave Update $x subdivisions to $v unchecked in the profile, this possibility of being flipped based on an authority match still exists.
NEW for 2019 If you desire to leave Update $x subdivisions to $v unchecked in the profile, you now have the option to PROTECT your $x from flipping based on the authority record. Until we are able to update the Online Profile, please make this request in the free-text section 3-14.
MARS 2.0 processes described previously in this section are applied to bibliographic headings only. Many LC authority records contain potential form subdivisions coded as $x.
Both preserving $v codes you enter and having MARS 2.0 update form subdivisions to the $v code will result in bibliographic headings coded differently than the established headings in LC authority records.
The following examples show some headings from bibliographic records with differing subfield coding and the form of the heading in the LC authority records, which would be distributed to the library:
bib heading (cartographic material is secondary): 651 0 $a United States $x Maps $x Early works to 1800. bib heading (work containing actual maps or reproductions): 651 0 $a United States $v Maps $v Early works to 1800. authority sh 86006684 (valid for both forms listed above): 151 $a United States $x Maps $x Early works to 1800 bib heading (work about various collections of manuscripts): 650 0 $a Manuscripts $x Collections. bib heading (work containing a collection of manuscripts): 650 0 $a Manuscripts $v Collections. authority sh 85080674 (valid for both forms listed above): 150 $a Manuscripts $v Collections
1.0 - 2.0 - 3.0 - 4.0 - 5.0 - 6.0