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Terminology… U

Unauthorized Heading (form)

4xx of authority record see See From Tracings


In computing, Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in most of the world’s writing systems. Developed in tandem with the Universal Character Set standard and published in book form as The Unicode Standard, Unicode consists of a repertoire of more than 100,000 characters, a set of code charts for visual reference, an encoding methodology and set of standard character encodings, an enumeration of character properties such as upper and lower case, a set of reference data computer files, and a number of related items. (wp)

Unicode Normalization

Unicode normalization is a form of text normalization that transforms equivalent sequences of characters into the same representation, called a normalization form in the Unicode standard, but which will be called simply normal form in this article. For each of the two equivalence notions, Unicode defines two canonical forms, one fully composed, and one fully decomposed, resulting in four normal forms, abbreviated NFC, NFD, NFKC, and NFKD, which are detailed in this article. Unicode normalization is important in Unicode text processing applications, because it affects the semantics of comparing, searching, and sorting Unicode sequences. (wp)

Uniform Titles

A uniform title in library cataloging is a title assigned to a work which either has no title or has appeared under more than one title. It is part of authority control. A uniform title allows all of the works to fall under one title and will reference all of the items to which the uniform title applies. (wp) A heading consisting of the title by which an item or a series is identified for cataloging purposes when the title is not entered under a personal, corporate, meeting, or jurisdiction name in a name/title heading construction. (m21)

Undifferentiated Authority Records

An undifferentiated heading lacks qualifiers that make it unique. This is usually found with name headings. A birth or death date is often used to differentiate. Sometimes undifferentiated headings are not qualified and are used to represent more than one person. (ac)

Undifferentiated Authority records will contain an 008/32 "b" or will have a 667 "This 1XX field cannot be used under RDA until ...". The majority of Backstage clientele prefer to match against and receive these authority records still.

Unestablished Heading

A heading that is not authorized for use in other MARC records as the lead element of a main, added, series, or subject access field. An unestablished heading may be a reference to a variant form of the established heading, a form of the heading used only for authority file organizational purposes, or a subject subdivision that is authorized for use with an established heading in an extended subject heading. In authority records, unestablished headings are used in the 1XX (heading) and 4XX (tracing) fields of reference (008/09, code b or c), subdivision (code d), reference and subdivision (code g), and node label (code e) records. An unestablished heading may also be used in the 4XX fields of established heading (code a or f) records. (m21)

Unmatched headings

Headings under authorization in the bibliographic record, 1XX, 4XX, 6XX, 7XX, 8XX, that do not have a national level authority record associated with it. Your MARS 2.0 Master Authority File includes a brief record generated for each unmatched heading during the MARS 2.0 Authority Control processing of bibliographic records. During every subsequent Authority Update, MARS 2.0 programs search for a national-level authority record corresponding to these unmatched headings. (mpg)


A series is "untraced" if there is no added entry made for the title of the series on the records of works in that series. Those records cannot be found by performing a search for the series as a title search in the OPAC. Series are treated as untraced if the authority match does not have a 645 $a "t" AND 008[12] = ’c’ (mpg)


Uploading describes the transfer of electronic data between two computers or similar systems. To upload, is to send data from a local system to a remote system, FTP server, or website. The difference between uploading and downloading is downloading means to receive and uploading means to send. (google)

Usage Code

The MARC 21 Format for Authority Data identifies three categories of heading usage in records: main or added entry (008/14); subject added entry (008/15); and series added entry (008/16). Only established headings may be used as the lead element of access points in bibliographic records. Name, name/title, and uniform title established headings may be appropriately used as any one, two, or three of the 008/14-16 usage categories. Topical term and extended subject headings may be used only as subject added entries. Subdivision headings may be used only in extended subject heading added entries. (m21)


see MARC21 - The American version of MARC became known as USMARC in the 1980s. It merged with the Canadian version of MARC (CAN/MARC) in 1997 to create MARC 21. (google)

UTF-8 Format

UTF-8 (8-bit UCS/Unicode Transformation Format) is a variable-length character encoding for Unicode. It is able to represent any character in the Unicode standard, yet the initial encoding of byte codes and character assignments for UTF-8 is backwards compatible with ASCII. For these reasons, it is steadily becoming the preferred encoding for e-mail, web pages[1], and other places where characters are stored or streamed. (wp)