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Terminology… F

Faceted Access for Subject Terminology

OCLC has created an authority database for FAST headings and made this available for matching against. MARS 2.0 can process your FAST headings via our processing upon your request. The 655 fields would need to have 2nd indicator value of 7 and $2 fast in order for our system to process these genre headings.

The FAST authority database comprises over 1.7 million authorities.

FAST authorities allow for a faceted approach to listing subject headings within bibliographic records:

 650 #0 $a American loyalists $z England.
 651 #0 $a United States $x History $y Revolution, 1775-1783 $v Biography.
 650 #0 $a Secret service $z Great Britain.
 650 #0 $a Painters $z United States.
 648 #0 $a 1775-1783
 650 #0 $a American loyalists
 650 #0 $a Revolution (United States, 1775-1783)
 650 #0 $a Secret service
 650 #0 $a Painters
 651 #0 $a England
 651 #0 $a United States
 651 #0 $a Great Britain
 655 #0 $a Biography
 655 #0 $a History

So each term within the original LC subject headings are broken out into a faceted network of headings. This could potentially enable discovery systems to make better links to subjects for patrons. Rather than searching for American loyalists in England patrons could search for American loyalists and then decide whether to pursue that to England or explore other countries with that term.

Faceted classification system

A faceted classification system allows the assignment of multiple classifications to an object, enabling the classifications to be ordered in multiple ways, rather than in a single, pre-determined, taxonomic order. The most prominent use of faceted classification is in faceted navigation systems that enable a user to navigate information hierarchically, going from a category to its sub-categories, but choosing the order in which the categories are presented. This contrasts with traditional taxonomies in which the hierarchy of categories is fixed and unchanging. (wp)

False Positives

A match made by an automated authority control process that is not an authorized match and results in bogus authority data in the authority file and authority headings. (ac) (The MARS 2.0 programs have been designed to eliminate the occurrence of "false positives" in authority matching.)


In computer science, data that has several parts can be divided into fields. For example, a computer may represent today’s date as three distinct fields: the day, the month and the year. (wp) In library science field and Tag are synonymous. In the MARC record the field is data that follows the three digit number refer to as a tag. The hierarchal parts of a field are termed, "subfield" and are typically represented by a lower case letter in the alphabet or a number. (wp, ac)

Field Deletes Table

In the MARS 2.0 automated authority control process field/tag updates are determined by tables set up to determine which fields are obsolete. The Field Deletes table has a set of default deletes but can be customized to fit the needs of the individual library. (mpg)

Field Distribution

Field Distribution is part of the MARS 2.0 Summary Report. It is a statistical analysis of the distribution of fields (by tag) within the bibliographic file. Included are how many records had none, one, or two instances of each field, and how many fields changed (by tag). Changes listed in this section correspond with MARC Update Processing. (mpg)

Field Update Tables

Also called Tag update Tables. In the MARS 2.0 automated authority control process field/tag update table refers to the set of fields/tags that are changed from one tag to another because the MARC 21 standards have changed over the years. An example of a Field update would be Tag 308 changed to Tag 300. The Field Update table has a set of default deletes but can be customized to fit the needs of the individual library. (mpg)

File segmentation

see Authority file segmentation

Filing Indicator

A filing indicator is used to indicate the number of characters that are to be ignored when a title is indexed. The characters ignored are initial articles on a title and vary depending on the language of the title. The MARC fields that have filing indicators are 242, 245 and 440. The second indicator is the filing indicator. (ac)

Fixed Field

A field of the MARC record containing a fixed number of characters. The 24 character leader field 001 or the 005, 006, 007 and 008 are all fixed fields. Each position of a fixed field is defined by a character or code and it is in that static position within the field. Other MARC fields are variable length fields where data within the field varies in length. (ac)

Flip authority headings

see Heading flips


Folksonomy (also known as collaborative tagging, social classification, social indexing, and social tagging) is the practice and method of collaboratively creating and managing tags to annotate and categorize content. In contrast to traditional subject indexing, metadata is generated not only by experts but also by creators and consumers of the content. Usually, freely chosen keywords are used instead of a controlled vocabulary.[1] Folksonomy is a portmanteau of the words folk and taxonomy, hence a folksonomy is a user generated taxonomy. (wp)

Form Subdivisions

The form subdivision is subfield $v of the topical subject heading (650). Form subdivisions (periodicals, bibliography, etc.) were authorized in the MARC Bibliographic Format in 1995. Introduced first by NLM in MeSH headings, LC began distributing both bibliographic and authority records containing $v subfields in February, 1999. MARS 2.0 incorporated a number of enhancements to fully support subfield $v. (mpg)

Form/Genre Headings

see Genre/Form


Functional Requirements for Authority Data. Entity-relationship model for authority control. Authority Control’s counterpart to FRBR (Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records). FRAD Entities are defined as Name, Identifier and Controlled Access point. The basic FRAD Model is Bibliographic Entities known by Names and or identifiers which are the basis for a controlled access point(s) to the bibliographic record. (Power point presentation - "FRBR and FRAD: Foundations for RDA by Pat Riva Chair, IFLA FRBR Review Group.) (google)

Free-floating subdivisions

see Subdivision headings


File Transfer Protocol. Data exchange format used to transfer data over the internet. MARS can accept a wide variety of input media, but the most common exchange format is Internet File Transfer Protocol (FTP). (mpg)

Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records

Or FRBR-- is a conceptual entity-relationship model developed by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) that relates user tasks of retrieval and access in online library catalogues and bibliographic databases from a user’s perspective. It represents a more holistic approach to retrieval and access as the relationships between the entities provide links to navigate through the hierarchy of relationships. The model is significant because it is separate from specific cataloguing standards such as AACR2 or International Standard Bibliographic Description (ISBD). (wp)