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Terminology… N

NACO – Name Authority Cooperative Program of the PCC

Through this program participants contribute authority records for names, uniform titles, and series to the LC/NAF. An individual institution may join this program, or a group of libraries with a common interest may form a funnel project to contribute records via a coordinator. In the United States, the primary organization for maintaining cataloguing standards with respect to authority work operates under the aegis of the Library of Congress, and is known as the Name Authority Cooperative Program, or NACO. Through this program participants contribute authority records for names, uniform titles, and series to the LC/NAF. An individual institution may join this program, or a group of libraries with a common interest may form a funnel project to contribute records via a coordinator. (wp) (PCC site)


An Acronym for the Library of Congress, "Name Authority File". The NAF file includes Personal Names (100), Corporate Names (111), Meeting Names, (110), Uniform Titles (130) and Name/title combinations. A name may be used as a main, added, subject added, or series added access entry. Current Count for the Name file is 7,233,903 with 459,307 additional series records found in that count. (ac, mpg)

Name Heading

A heading that is a personal, corporate, meeting, or jurisdiction (including geographic) name. (m21)

Name/Title Heading

A heading consisting of both name and title portions. The name portion contains a personal, corporate, meeting, or jurisdiction name. The title portion contains the title by which an item or a series is identified for cataloging purposes and may be a uniform or conventional title, a title page title of a work, or a series title. The structure is as follows; x00$t or 100/240 also called, Compound heading. (m21)

Narrower Term Reference

A reference to a subject heading at a lower level in a hierarchy than the term referred from. Narrower term references do not appear in subject authority records, but are generated by automated systems as the reciprocals of broader term references. (lcshpa)

National-Level Authority Files

Term used to describe authority files created on a national level. The Library of Congress is the standard for national authority files but other countries and national organizations also create national-level authority files. Other national-level files as follows.

  • National Library of Medicine’s (MeSh) file
  • National Library of Canada’s Canadiana (NLC) Names file
  • National Library of Canada’s (NLC) Subject Headings

NLC Authority files

The NLC Authority Files contain both the NLC Canadiana and NLC Canadian Subject Heading authority records. The 630,000 NLC Canadiana personal and corporate name authority records contain name headings that appear on publications catalogued for the Canadian National Bibliography and for names contributed by the National Archives of Canada and the Canadian Institute for Historical Microreproductions (CIHM). Some of the records have been authenticated by the NLC for use by the Library of Congress. About 2,000 new and updated records are received in each semi-monthly update. (mpg)

NLC National Library of Canada

Also called, Library and Archives Canada (in French: Bibliothèque et Archives Canada) is a Canadian federal government department responsible for the collection and preservation of the documentary heritage of Canada through texts, pictures and other documents relevant to the history of Canada, culture of Canada and the politics of Canada. Archival and library material are acquired from government departments, national groups or organizations, private donors, and legal deposit. Located in Ottawa, Ontario, its director with the rank of deputy head of a department is known as the Librarian and Archivist of Canada. The first holder of this title is the former National archivist Ian E. Wilson. (wp)

NLC Canadiana Files

National Library of Canada Canadiana Authority File: The word Canadiana is a term referring to things related to the country of Canada. It is most often used to refer to a class of books somewhat wider than Canadian Literature because it also includes books about Canada as well as Canadian non-fiction works. The National Library of Canada maintains a controlled vocabulary of Canadiana terms. (wp)

Non-Jurisdictional Name Headings

A geographic heading representing an entity other than a jurisdiction. Typical non-jurisdictional name headings include those for rivers, mountains, parks, roads, etc. (lcshpa)


Normalization is a process by which text is transformed in some way to make it consistent in a way which it might not have been before. Text normalization is often performed before text is processed in some way, such as generating synthesized speech, automated language translation, storage in a database, or comparison. (wp) On a MARC record Normalization refers to a computer edit that eliminates all diacritics and most punctuation (except first comma after subfield a), and converts all letters to uppercase and all modified letters to their unmodified equivalents. (mpg)

Examples of text normalization:

Unicode normalization

  • converting all letters to lower or upper case
  • removing punctuation
  • removing accent marks and other diacritics from letters
  • expanding abbreviations
  • removing stopwords or "too common" words
  • stemming

Notification Services

The MARS 2.0 Authority Notification Service keeps your authority files up-to-date by notifying you when authority records are updated, replaced, or deleted, and supplying the updated records to your library. This service is very flexible, with options that make it easy to customize in order to meet local requirements. (mpg)

Numeric Field Format Validation

MARC fields that are incorrectly formatted often cause user searches to fail and prevent items in the collection from being included in the system indexes. MARS 2.0 software can validate the structure of numeric data in the following fields: (mpg)

  • 010: Library of Congress Control Number (LCCN)
  • 020: International Standard Book Number (ISBN)
  • 022: International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)
  • 034: Coded Cartographic Mathematic Data (CCMD)