Profile Guide Step 2.9

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GMD Standardization MARS 2.0 Update also updates obsolete General Material Designations (GMDs) to the current authorized form, and corrects most incorrectly spelled GMD variants.

Step 2.9 Question


The full MARS 2.0 Update process (Step 2.1) uses the AACR2 Standard Terms Table (Level 1) and adds square brackets. Please indicate which GMD table you would like to use and your preferred bracket practice by filling out Step 2.9 section ‘a’ and ‘b’.

GMD Location

MARS 2.0 Update will examine GMDs in the first subfield $h (Medium) in each 245 Title Statement. The processing assumes it has reached the end of the 245 $h subfield when it encounters one of the following characters: subfield delimiter, end-of-field delimiter, forward slash, back slash, colon, semicolon, equal sign, or period.

MARS 2.0 Update will also move the subfield $h if it is not in the correct location within the 245 field. The 245 $h subfield will be moved:

  • Before a subfield $b
  • After a subfield $n or $p in headings with a subfield $b
  • Before a subfield $c in headings without a $b, $n or $p
	245  14	$aThe royal gazette /$cNew Brunswick$hmicroform.
	245  04	$aThe Green bag :$ba useless but entertaining magazine for
	245  00	$aDaily report.$h[microform]$pPeople’s Republic of China /$cFBIS.

	changes to:
	245  14	$aThe royal gazette$h[microform] /$cNew Brunswick.
	245  04	$aThe Green bag$h[microform] :$ba useless but entertaining magazine for
	245  00	$aDaily report.$pPeople’s Republic of China$h[microform] /$cFBIS.

AACR2 Standard Terms (Level 1)

In the AACR2 Standard Terms option (GMD Level 1), MARS 2.0 processing will convert as many GMDs as possible to the terms authorized in the current edition of AACR2. For example, both $h[computer file] and $h[computer fillle] would be modified to $h[electronic resource]. Most libraries will want to select this level of GMD processing.

Common Practice Terms (Level 2)

In their local catalog, some libraries use GMDs which are not included in the AACR2 list of authorized GMDs (AACR2 paragraph 1.1C). The MARS 2.0 Level 2 GMD list contains ‘common’ terms used in many libraries.

For example, using the Level 2 Common Practice Terms table, the GMD $h[audicassette] would be corrected to $h[audiocassette], while in the AACR2 Standard Terms option (Level 1) $h[audicassette] would be corrected to the standard AACR2 GMD $h[sound recording].

Obsolete terms (i.e., terms that were once authorized by AACR2 and have been replaced by a different term) are normally updated to the replacement term even in Level 2. For example, $h[computer file] is replaced by the newer term $h[electronic resource].

Custom Terms

You can easily modify either of the GMD term options available in MARS 2.0. For example, if you would like to standardize all your GMDs to the AACR2 Standard Terms, but retain the non-standard terms “microfiche” and “microfilm”, simply notate it in Step 2.10 under Additional Information.

Unrecognized Terms

If the MARS 2.0 GMD tables do not contain a particular GMD variant, that GMD will be included in the Unrecognized GMD Report (See Step 5.2, Report 51). A copy of the Report of Unrecognized GMDs can be requested on MARS Step 5.2.


MARS 2.0 programs can also add square brackets around the GMD if not present. Similarly, if the GMD is enclosed in parentheses, angle brackets, etc. MARS programs change them to square brackets. MARS 2.0 can also remove brackets from GMDs to support systems in which the brackets cause display problems.

	245  14	$aThe royal gazette$hmicroform /$cNew Brunswick.
	245  10	$aPride and prejudice$h(vidrecording) /$cMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer.
	changes to:	
	245  14	$aThe royal gazette$h[microform] /$cNew Brunswick.
	245  10	$aPride and prejudice$h[videorecording] /$cMetro-Goldwyn-Mayer.

The MARS 2.0 staff recommends adding square brackets to the 245 $h subfield. Even if your present local system generates the necessary square brackets, it is likely a future system will require them in the record.

Note: Brackets around GMDs can only be added or removed if GMDs are being standardized. If GMDs are not being standardized, no changes will occur in the 245 $h subfields.


The table below shows the results of selecting the various GMD Standardization options in Step 2.9:

Original Form of GMD in Bibliographic Record: $haudiocasste


MARS 2.0 GMD Table – AACR2 Standard Terms (spelling variants not shown)

Level 1 Level 1 Level 1
activity card flash card object
art original game picture
art reproduction kit realia
braille manuscript slide
cartographic material microform sound recording
cartographic material (tactile) microscope slide technical drawing
chart model text
chart (large print) motion picture text (large print)
diorama multimedia toy
electronic resource music transparency
filmstrip music (braille) videorecording

MARS 2.0 GMD Table – GMD Common Terms (spelling variants not shown)

Level 2 Level 2 Level 2
activity card globe record
art original government document serial
art reproduction graphic slide set
atlas kit sound recording
audiocassette large print sound recording (cassette)
braille laser disc sound recording (compact disc)
cartographic chart LP sound recording (CD)
cartographic material manuscript sound recording (LP)
cartographic material (tactile) map study print
CD recording map (tactile) technical drawing
CD-ROM microfiche text
CDV microfilm text (large print)
chart microform toy
chart (large print) microopaque transparency
compact disc microprint US document
diorama microscope slide VHS
DVD model video CD
DVD-ROM motion picture video single disc
electronic resource music videocassette
electronic resource (CD-ROM) music (braille) videodisc
federal document newspaper videodisc (DVD)
filmstrip periodical videorecording
flash card photograph videorecording (DVD)
floppy picture videorecording (VHS)
game realia VSD


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